Mid-year 2007 estimate: Total 47,850,700: African 38,079,900 (79,6%), White 4,352,100 (9,1%), Coloured 4,245,000 (8,9%) and Asian 1,173,700 (2,5%). – Guelke, Leonard “Freehold farmers and frontier settlers, 1675-1780” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. 21, nÂ° 3 1988, Boston, MA, USA, pp. Today the Dutch Reformed Church has also six English-language congregations. de Jong. The first van der Merwes hail from the Merwede river. A shipwrecked Portuguese Galleon, A Portuguese fort in Madagascar: the fort near Tolanaro, The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Tidore: The Spanish forts on the island of Tidore, 1606-1663, South East Asia and in Far East Asia. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia. The WIC would soon become a powerful force itself, even founding the Dutch coloni… The settlement – to be known as Cape Town – grew to 6000 acres. A. Monarch who commissioned reporter Henry Stanley to obtain land in the Congo in his name. Human made waterway that cuts through the isthmus of suez and connects the red sea to the mediterranean. A Dutch colony was established in Northeast Brazil; over 30.000 people settled in the region. with many illustrations. During the tenure of Simon van der Stel, the colony was elevated to the rank of a governorate, hence he was promoted to the position of "Governor of the Cape". Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, and its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape Colony over to the Batavian Republic in 1803, under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. These terms were first used in 1707. Dutch Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, America. After several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as een Vryburgher ("a free citizen"), on which he had to cultivate crops that he had to sell to the United East India Company for a fixed price. Some Boers migrated to other parts of the world, such as Patagonia in Argentina, where there is still an Afrikaans-speaking community. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Dutch Colonial Empire. The greatest linguistic legacy of the Netherlands was in its colony in South Africa, which attracted large numbers of Dutch farmer (in Dutch, Boer) settlers, who spoke a simplified form of Dutch called Afrikaans, which is largely mutually intelligible with Dutch. By order of that company in 1652, Jan van Riebeeck arrived with a few other Dutch settlers at the Cape of Good Hope to establish this half-way station so that fresh vegetables and fruits could be provided to prevent scurvy among the Company’s sailors. After the first settlers spread out around the Company station, nomadic European livestock farmers, or Trekboeren, moved more widely afield, leaving the richer, but limited, farming lands of the coast for the drier interior tableland. During a visit in 1672, the high-ranking Commissioner Arnout van Overbeke made a formal purchase of the Cape territory, although already ceded in 1660, his reason was to "prevent future disputes". English text revision by Dietrich KÃ¶ster. Dutch settlement in South Africa began in March 1647, the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem, wrecked at the Cape. The name went to South Africa with the Dutch settlers in 1652. , The VOC favoured the idea of freemen at the Cape and many settlers requested to be discharged in order to become free burghers; as a result, Jan van Riebeeck approved the notion on favorable conditions and earmarked two areas near the Liesbeek River for farming purposes in 1657. Traders of the United East India Company (VOC), under the command of Jan van Riebieeck, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa. “The Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa. Sharpeville Massacre South African police shot non-violent protesters (protesting against pass laws) in Sharpeville township; 69 deaths (1960). The Afrikaans Language Monument in Paarl. There were also farmers outside the town. Dutch control did not last long, however, as the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars (18 May 1803) invalidated the Peace of Amiens.  The Cape came under VOC rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. Today (2001 census) Afrikaans is the 3rd language of South Africa. Due to the authoritarian rule of the Company (telling farmers what to grow for what price, controlling immigration, and monopolising trade), some farmers tried to escape the rule of the company by moving further inland. The other churches are the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa, which is the result of the merging in April 1994 of: – Nederduitse Gereformeerde Sendingkerk, (traditionally the church of the coloured people), – Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Afrika, (traditionally black people), – Indian Reformed Church in Africa, (with predominantly Indian members). A more recent estimate (2005) of the South African population gives a total of 46,888,200 inhabitants of whom: African 37,205,700 (79,4%), White 4,379,800 (9,3%), Coloured 4,148,800 (8,8%) and Asian 1,153,900 (2,5%). List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, The Portuguese in Bassein (BaÃ§aim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India, The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Portuguese Empire: Africa, America and Asia maps, The Russians in America: Alaska and California, Flor de la Mar (Flor do Mar), 1511. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. The only thing is that the article must be original and not previously published on other websites. 1998, Hilversum. Afrikaans Creole languages are: Oorlams and Flaai Taal. History of South Africa, 1484 - 1691, G.M. An Historical Sketch” ? By 1659 Dutch livestock was occupying some native summer grazing land, and Khoikhoi and Bushmen united against the Dutch. One of these is a man whom van Riebeeck calls Herry. Afrikaans is not only spoken by the White peoples of Dutch, Huguenot and German descent (about 60% of South Africa’s Whites), but also by the majority (about 90%) of the people of mixed descent (Coloureds). By 1700, the traditional "Khoekhoe" lifestyle of pastoralism, which they had learnt from Bantu agriculturalists and pastoralists, had disappeared. Selwyn & Blount, 1903. The Dutch settlement history in South Africa began in March 1647 with the shipwreck of the Dutch ship belgian settlers in south africa were known as boers. RICHMOND, VA—The Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at what is now Cape Town in 1652. Afrikaans is a language of Dutch origin and structure similar to Flemish; it’s also influenced by various African languages and by Portuguese, German, French and Malay. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, South America. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named "Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope". Afrikaans variants are: Cape Afrikaans (West Cape Afrikaans), Orange River Afrikaans and East Cape Afrikaans. Indian slaves from the Dutch colonies had been introduced into the Cape area of South Africa by the Dutch settlers in 1654. The British established their colony to control the Far East trade routes. – Elphick, R., and Hermann GiliomeeÂ “The Shaping of South African Society, 1652-1820” ? Also the length of the article is not a problem, the minimum lenght is about 450 words. Russian forts and settlements in Hawaii, Arguin: A Portuguese Fortress in Mauritania 1445-1633, West Africa. The original colony and its successive states that the colony was incorporated into occupied much of modern South Africa. Raj. The Dutch Settlement. As the only permanent settlement of the Dutch United East India Company not serving as a trading post, it proved an ideal retirement place for employees of the company. The Dutch Cape Colony was divided into four districts. Today South Africa is an ethnically and culturally diverse country, where the descendants of the Dutch settlers form only a minority. Britain seized Natal in 1843 but the other two territories became Boer republics. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 confirmed the transfer of sovereignty to Great Britain. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, The Dutch East India Company: VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), Map of Dutch settlements in Guyana and Suriname 1600-1750, The Dutch in Formosa 1624-1662,Â 1664-1668, Index of the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon, Dutch and Portuguese remains in Sri Lanka: forts and churches, The Dutch Burghers of Sri Lanka. Beginning in the 17th century with the tiny Dutch settlement, the book charts the growth of Cape Town over almost three centuries, ending with the British colonial city. 2,990 Views. In: “Kronos, Journal of Cape History” nÂ° 25, 1998/1999. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Arabia and Persian Gulf. With Notices of the Other Denominations. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia Far East: China, Taiwan (Formosa), Japan. Mid-year 2011 estimate: Total 50,586,757: African 40,206,275 (79,5%), White 4,565,825 (9,0%), Coloured 4,539,790 (9,0%) and Asian 1,274,867 (2,5%). This was the original model of colonialism brought by the Dutch in 1652, and subsequently exported from the Western Cape to the Afrikaner Republics of the Orange Free State and the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. The Reformed Church or Gereformeerde Kerk consists of three related churches, which according to a census represent more than 3,000,000 people. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Africa. Hostility between British and Dutch settlers, known as Boers or Afrikaners, led to the Great Trek of 1835-43, a migration of Boers from the Cape who founded Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal. Afrikaans was declared an official tongue of South Africa besides English in 1925. Notable Germans in South Africa. – Mc Carter, J. The Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK) is the largest of the three churches and has now more than 1,200 congregations and 1,300,000 members. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Asia. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. People became carpenters, bricklayers, inn keepers, bankers, officials and blacksmiths. – Theal, G. “The history of South Africa under the administration of the Dutch East India Company (1652 â 1795)” 459+462 pp.Â maps, 2 voll.Â Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1897, London, United Kingdom. These areas were separated by the Amstel River (Liesbeek River). Jan van Riebeeck was aboard one of these ships. According to the Namibian census 2001 the Afrikaans language is the second language of Namibia (11% of the total population). A. Heese, Den Herkoms van de Afrikaner 1657 - 1867. By the time of British rule after 1795, the sociopolitical foundations were firmly laid. Under the terms of the Peace of Amiens of 1802, Britain acceded the colony to the Dutch on 1 March 1803, but as the Batavian Republic had since nationalized the United East India Company (1796), the colony came under the direct rule of The Hague. Dutchmen soon started settling the area, with little, if any, conflict with the native Khoisan population. In 1795, after the Battle of Muizenberg in present-day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony. This group of first settlers … Dutch Settlement 1652-1712 Meeting the indigenous people – 6th April, Van Riebeeck makes the acquaintance of two Khoikhoi who had come aboard the Dromedaris. The History of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka) during Portuguese and Dutch rule, Trincomalee: The first British occupation and the definitive Dutch surrender, Trincomalee: The consolidation of the Dutch presence, Trincomalee: The new Dutch occupation and the reconstruction of the Fort, Trincomalee: The Dutch conquest and the abandonment of the Fort, Trincomalee: The arrival of the Danes, the Dutch and the construction of the Portuguese Fort, The History of Trincomalee during Portuguese and Dutch rule: Introduction, The Dutch Fort of Galle in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), The Fort of Malacca: Portuguese-Dutch Fortress of Malacca (Melaka), The abortive expedition of Don Juan de Silva against the Dutch in the East Indies (1612-1616), Recife Forts: Fort do Brum, Fort das Cinco Pontas, Recife: the capital of sugar cane of Colonial Brazil, Fort Orange (Oranje), ItamaracÃ¡: a Dutch fortress in Brazil, Dutch in Chile: Hendrick Brouwer’s expedition to Valdivia, Dutch New York: The Dutch settlements in North America, Dutch and Courlanders on Tobago. 293-313 Also in: “International Journal of African Historical Studies” Vol. Starting in the 17th century, Dutch settlers relied on slaves to build up South Africa. Leopold II of Belgium. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, South East Asia and the Far East. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, America. Emigrants from Holland were then encouraged to settle and colonize, bu… Rudi Ball (1911–1975), German-South African Hall … Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. The settlement established in the Cape in 1652 provided fresh food supplies for ships sailing to the east. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, India. According to the South African Census 2001, Afrikaans is the majority language in Western Cape province (2,500,748 speakers) and Northern Cape province (559,189 speakers) it’s the second language in Eastern Cape province (600,057 speakers), in Free State province (323,082 speakers), in Gauteng province (1,269,176 speakers), in North West province (275,681 speakers); there is a large number of speakers also in the other provinces: Kwa-zulu Natal (140,833 speakers, 4th), Limpopo (122,531 speakers, 4th) and Mpumalanga (192,129 speakers, 5th). The British occupied the Cape in 1795, ending the Dutch East India Company’s role in the region. The Dutch Settlement. South Africa - South Africa - Growth of the colonial economy: From 1770 to 1870 the region became more fully integrated into the world capitalist economy. Dutch settlers of south africa fought against the british, british won. The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named Groeneveld and Dutch Garden. After the war, the natives ceded the land to the settlers in 1660. Afrikaans was declared an official tongue of South Africa besides English in 1925.  The Khoena ("People") were disgruntled by the disruption of their seasonal visit to the area for which purpose they grazed their cattle at the foot of Table Mountain only to find European settlers occupying and farming the land, leading to the first Khoi-Dutch War as part of a series of Khoekhoe-Dutch Wars. In 1652, Dutch emigrants first settled in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope to establish a station where ships traveling to the Dutch East Indies (currently Indonesia) could rest and resupply. The region of the Western Cape which includes the Table Bay area (where the modern city of Cape Town is located) was inhabited by nÂ° 4, 1995; pp. In 1795, France occupied the Dutch Republic. Leibrandt, P47 - 48, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_Cape_Colony&oldid=997070424, Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch East India Company, States and territories established in 1652, States and territories disestablished in 1806, 17th-century establishments in the Cape Colony, 1806 disestablishments in the Dutch Empire, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 31 August 1737 – 19 September 1737 (died after three weeks in office), 1772 – 23 January 1773 (died at sea on his way to the Cape), This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 21:32. nÂ° 29, 1998; pp. Dutch Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, Oceania. In 1797 their populations were:. in 1884 and 1885 14 africa nations met at the Berlin Conference to discuss the future of africa. A historical sketch of the development of the church under VOC and British rule its schisms and dissidents, as well as short data on other churches in the territory. The Company, in an effort to control these migrants, established a magistracy at Swellendam in 1745 and another at Graaff Reinet in 1786, and declared the Gamtoos River as the eastern frontier of the colony, only to see the Trekboere cross it soon afterwards. In 1652, the Dutch East India Company began the first permanent European settlement of South Africa under Jan van Riebeeck. Afrikaans is not only spoken by the White peoples of Dutch, Huguenot and German descent (about 60% of South Africa’s Whites), but also by the majority (about 90%) of the people of mixed descent (Coloureds). Thus by 1672, the permanent indigenous residents living at the Cape had grown substantially. It has been theorised that "a number of non-professing Jews" were among the first settlers of Cape Town. Itâs the majority language in Karas region (40%) and in Hardap region (44%); itâs the second language in Erongo region (22%) and in Khomas Region (24%); itâs the third language in Omaheke Region (12%). All rights reserved. Jan van Riebeeck established the colony as a re-supply and layoverport for vessels of the VOC tr… Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). Afrikaners (Afrikaans: [afriˈkɑːnərs]) are an ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving at the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th and 18th centuries. However, most of the settlers remained in the colony under new leadership of the British. Group of people who traveled to Africa to promote Christianity. The first and largest wave of Dutch settlers in Brazil was between 1640 and 1656. , The ability of the European settlers to produce food at the Cape initiated the decline of the nomadic lifestyle of the Khoe and !Ui speaking peoples since food was produced at a fixed location. The peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had broken after one year, while Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which he would replace with a monarchy later that year). Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). They traditionally dominated South Africa's politics and commercial agricultural sector prior to 1994. The VOC had a big impact on South Africa, but they weren't the only Dutch trading company. This evolved from Dutch but also contained Malay and Portuguese Creole words. By the early 1700s, there were about 1000 Dutch settlers living in the Cape. www.colonialvoyage.com Â© Copyright 1998-2020, All Rights Reserved. The Cape society in this period was thus a diverse one. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Central America.  Much to the dismay of the shareholders of the VOC, who focused primarily on making profits from the Asian trade, the colony rapidly expanded into a Settler Colony in the years after its founding. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini. After about 10 years most had prospered and had been able to take ownership of their lands. As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique and Asia (Dutch East Indies and Dutch Ceylon), which rapidly increased the number of inhabitants. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Africa. nÂ° 4; Disney, A. The initial years were a struggle for the settlers but gradually, with hard work, conditions improved. In order to avoid collision with the Bantu peoples advancing south, north and west from east central Africa, the VOC agreed in 1780 to make the Great Fish River the boundary of the colony. nÂ° 29; Nizza da Silva, M. B. “Historiorgraphy of Europeans in Africa and Asia 1450-1800” Ashgate Variorum, vol. A history of the first settlements 1628-1677, The Castle of Good Hope: A Dutch Fort in South Africa, The Dutch in South Africa, 1652-1795Â and 1802-1806, The Dutch on SÃ£o TomÃ© and Principe: the attacks on the island of Principe (1598) and SÃ£o TomÃ© (1599), The Dutch on Mauritius 1638-1658, 1664-1710, The Portuguese onÂ the Persian Gulf and on the Arabian Peninsula, The Portuguese in Ceylon: The Portuguese in Sri Lanka before the war with the Dutch, The Jesuit Missions in South America: Jesuits Reductions in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Fort Jesus Mombasa: a Portuguese fortress in Kenya, India. 174-216 Also in: “The shaping of South African Society 1652-1840” 1986, Middelton, Connecticut, USA, pp. Boer, (Dutch: “husbandman,” or “farmer”), a South African of Dutch, German, or Huguenot descent, especially one of the early settlers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. CD Colin Pretorius 2013. From October 11, 1899, until May 31, 1902, the Second Boer War (also known as the South African War and the Anglo-Boer War) was fought in South Africa between the British and the Boers (Dutch settlers in southern Africa).The Boers had founded two independent South African republics (the Orange Free State and the South African Republic) and had a long history of distrust … South Africa’s modern history begins with the Dutch East India Company, which established trading posts for sailors along the coast. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). In the 2001 census South Africa had 44,819,778 inhabitants of whom 35,416,166 were Bantus (Zulu, Sotho, Xhosa, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi, Ndebele and others), 4,293,640 were Whites (mostly Boers and British), 3,994,505 were Coloureds (people of mixed descent mainly Whites and Hottentots, the latter also called Namas or Khoi Khois) and 1,115,467 were Asians (mostly Indians, a few Chinese).  After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes (October 1685), which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). Crimean War. If you want to publish a study with regard to the geographical discoveries or colonialism, please contact me I will be happy to post it on Colonialvoyage. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Indonesia. The emergence of Afrikaans reflects this diversity, from its roots as a Khoe-Dutch pidgin, to its subsequent creolisation and use as "Kitchen Dutch" by slaves and serfs of the colonials, and its later use in Cape Islam by them when it first became a written language that used the Arabic letters. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London. VOC Cape Colony at its largest extent in 1795, Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1962), Commanders and governors of the Cape Colony (1652–1806). His name is Autshumato (c.1611-1663) Chief of the Goringhaicona Khoikhoi. “Historiorgraphy of Europeans in Africa and Asia 1500-1800” Ashgate Variorum, vol. As a result it was looked down on as a kombuistaal (kitchen language) by the wealthier settlers who spoke High Dutch. The United East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, then ceased to exist in 1799. Of South African society 1652-1840 ” 1986, Middelton, Connecticut, USA, pp the traditional `` ''... Was to ultimately take over Portuguese and Spanish colonies in Africa and 1450-1800. 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